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Transcendent Philosophy of Mulla Sadra

Professor S.M. Khamenei

Unlike other heavenly books, the Qur'an involves some very profound and discus­sion raising verses and statements on theology, worldview, and anthropology. This Holy Book, from the very early days of the prevalence of Islam - when there was no word of Greek or Oriental philoso­phy - coulo^introduce a series of important philosophical issues such as God's knowl­edge, the meaning of His Will and Attributes, the concepts of Divine Decree and Destiny, predestination, renunciation, life after death, resurrection, and the Hereafter to the field of thought and phi­losophy. Moreover, it makes references to the quality of the creation of the material world, the birth of prime matter, the end of world, the annihilation of matter, and, basically, cosmology.

It is true that the collection of such vers­es and their interpretations, which had been given by the Prophet (p.b.u.h), Imam Ali (AS) and Muhammed's descen­dants, planted the seeds for the growth of Shi'ite theology and, later, for the so-called science of theology; however, it was not limited to theologians' use. The gate of knowledge and teaching in the Qur'an has always been open to all, as it became a source of inspiration for Mulla Sadra, too. Our great philosopher, who always criticized theologians' ideas, viewed Qur'anic verses and the interpre­tations given by Muhammed's (P.b.u.h) descendants with utter respect, relied on them, and was inspired by their heavenly words.

The other point to be emphasized here is Mulla Sadra's power of intuition in the sense of communicating with the hidden world and unveiling the realities. This was a power possessed by all prominent masters of Ishraqi philos­ophy. In some of his books, Mulla Sadra emphasizes that he first perceives the truth of every philosophical and rational problem through intuition, and then demonstrates it on the basis of rational and philosophical arguments.

He claims that he is the only philoso­pher who has been able to transform the issues that Ishraqi philosophers had per­ceived through unveiling and intuition, and presented as undemonstrated theories into logical and philosophical arguments. He does this so conversantly that even those who do not believe in intuitive per­ception surrender to his ideas. As we will discuss later, a great number of his well-known theories and ideas had been pre­viously stated by Ishraqi sages; however, they had not been philosophically proved.

Mulla Sadra has profoundly benefited from Peripatetic, Ishraqi, theological, and sophist schools of thought and can be said to owe a great part of this knowl­edge to the masters of these schools. Apart from the Qur'an, the Prophet (p.b.u.h), Imam Ali (As), and the Prophet's descendants, he has a deep-rooted belief in Muhyaddin, Ibn-Sina, Aristotle, Plotinus, Suhrawardi, Tusi, Sadr al-Din, Qiyath al-Din Dashtaki, Dawani, and pre-Socratic philosophers, particular­ly Pythagoras and Empedocles. He also agrees with Qazzali's ideas concerning ethics, and favors Fakhr Razi's method of analyzing theological and philosophical problems; nevertheless, he doea not con­sider them as philosophers and refutes their philosophical ideas in many respects. However, in cases where he agrees with their views, he never hesi­tates to praise them, and, in order to show his confirmation and acceptance of their ideas, he quotes from them verba­tim, as if he himself has originally uttered those words.

One of the sources of Mulla Sadra's philosophy is the pre-Socratic history of philosophy. The philosophers of that time mainly consisted of Ishraqi sages, who followed Oriental and Iranian ancient philosophies to a great extent.

Generally speaking, unlike the case with Peripatetic philosophy, Mulla Sadra's sources of philosophy were not merely confined to the intellect, so that he would ignore other sources such as revelation and inspiration. In the same way, he did not limit himself only to inspiration and illumination, so that, like gnostics and sophists, he would regard the intellect as being incapable of the perception of reali­ties. He even considered revelation as the most important, valid, and reliable source of knowledge, and, as we men­tioned previously, he also attached too much importance to what can be learnt from the Qur'an and hadith.

Mulla Sadra is one of the exceptional philosophers who has graded these sources. He believes that the first basis for accessing truth is the intellect; howev­er, he does not consider it as being capa­ble of solving the subtle problems of metaphysics. Therefore, a philosopher or sage should not stop halfway through seeking the reality and deprive himself from intuition and using prophets' revela­tion.

He states that man's intellect confirms revelation, and revelation completes the intellect. One who has a religion and depends on revelation must accept the role of the intellect in discovering the truth; likewise, one who follows the intel­lect and wisdom, must confirm and accept revelation. Intuition and illumina­tion can be demonstrated by means of argumentation and reasoning and, as a result, grant universality to personal experiences, exactly in the same way that the hidden principles of nature could be proved by resorting to mathematical laws.

However, one must admit that the power of wisdom is limited, but intuition and love have no boundaries and can aid man in attaining the truth. The vastness and breadth of Mulla Sadra's domain of views, and the plurality of the origins of his thoughts granted more freedom to him to expand the realm of philosophy. As a result, there is no trace of differ­ent types of narrow-mindedness witnessed in other schools of phi­losophy in his philosophy.